Proton exchange membrane (PEM) can be created by using sodium silicate in nanochannel array that connect two microfluidic channels used for fuel cell. Sodium silicate based sol-gel structure thus bridges cathodic and anodic compartments. Scientists from Dutta Research Lab at University of Wyoming were able to generate an open circuit potential of 1.31V and a maximum current of 31.2 uA at room temperature. Study is recently published in the Journal of Power Science. Click on the link to see the journal article.